Combustion effluents of rubber
again and again a burning research topic
of Dr. Nicholas Büthe
2.3 Extract of diploma
4 Doctoral thesis
4.3 Extract of thesis
6 Curriculum vitae
Large quantities of elastomers are stored before, during and after the production process. These stored materials possess extraordinarily high calorific potentials of 30 - 45 MJ/kg compared to e. g. coal with approx. 30 MJ/kg. Thus, elastomer fires are almost uncontrollable because of the freed amounts of heat. The combustion effluents developing during a fire possess hazardous potentials for humans and environment (see Fig. 1).
Fig. 1 Tire fire in Hagersville (CAN), 1990
Combustion effluents of raw polymers, mixtures and vulcanizates (on base of NR, SBR, CR, BIIR, NBR and EPDM) are investigated for their qualitative, quantitative and time-dependent composition. Rubber fires are simulated and the important combustion parameters temperature, ventilation and surface/mass ratio of the samples are systematically varied.
A VCI fire simulation apparatus (Fig. 2) is used which was developed by Bayer, BASF and Hoechst especially for chemical analysis of combustion effluents. The combustion effluents are collected using different sampling techniques and are analysed by means of complex chemical analysis methods.
The past results and further research will enable a forecast and a estimation of hazard in the case of rubber fires.
Fig. 2 VCI fire simulation apparatus
2 Diploma thesis
The diploma thesis was done from july 1996 until december 1996 at the Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Fachbereich Analytische Chemie, of the University of Hannover under the care of Mr. Prof. Dr. G. Wünsch. The experimental work took place at the Deutsches Institut für Kautschuktechnologie e.V. (DIK), Hannover. Special measurements were executed at the Institut für Technische Chemie of the University of Hannover, working group of Prof. Rotzoll. The financial support provided by the Wirtschaftsverband der deutschen Kautschukindustrie e.V. (W. d. K.) is greatly acknowledged.
Investigation of combustion effluents of elastomers
Rubber fires are hardly controllable due to the freed amounts of heat and possess risks for humans and environment because of the toxic combustion effluents, developing thereby.
This study investigate systematically the substances which are formed if rubber burns. Therefore a fire simulation apparatus on a laboratory scale and analysis methods for combustion effluents were developed. Smoldering fires and open fires ...
Keywords: Fire simulation, model combustion, combustion effluents, fire gases, rubber, elastomers, tire, VCI combustion chamber, chemical analysis methods, GC/MS, GC-FID, GC-TCD, TGA-FTIR
... further text passages not yet approved ...
2.3 Extract of diploma thesisDiploma: Untersuchung von Brandgasen an Elastomeren (german)
The research topic, the analysis methods and selected results were visualised for a poster presentation at the International Rubber Conference 1998 in Paris. The poster is stored as a PDF-file and can be displayed using the freeware Acrobat Reader:
4 Doctoral thesis
From february 1997 till november 1999 I worked on my doctoral thesis "Rubber fires - fire tests, analysis and assessment" at the Deutsches Institut für Kautschuktechnologie e.V. (DIK) under the care of Mr. Prof. Dr. G. Wünsch, Universität Hannover, Fachbereich Analytische Chemie. Investigations on combustion effluents of rubber had been continued.
The financial support provided by the Wirtschaftsverband der deutschen Kautschukindustrie e.V. (W. d. K.) is greatly acknowledged.
Rubber Fires - Fire Tests, Analysis and Assessment
Rubber fires are extremly hot, difficult to extinguish and large amounts of fire effluents and smoke are emitted. Being able to predict the composition of fire effluents as a function of burning material and fire conditions is of great interest. Estimation of the hazard potential in the event of a fire and a judgement of compliance with statutes governing the storage of these materials would be possible.
Thus, fire tests had been developed using laboratory scale apparatusses and fires of select common rubber materials were simulated. The composition of the combustion effluents of these materials were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively as function of combustion parameters (ventilation, temperature and surface/mass ratio).
The fire gas composition and emission potentials of selected constituents in rubber fires were estimated and assessed toxicologically based on the results and published studies.
Keywords: fire effluents · rubber · chemical analysis
4.3 Extract of doctoral thesisAn extract of my doctoral thesis is stored as a PDF-file and can be displayed using the freeware Acrobat Reader:
The complete version of my thesis can be ordered online as a printout on the homepage of the Deutsches Institut für Kautschuktechnologie e. V.:ORDER!.
 N. Büthe; Untersuchung von Brandgasen an Elastomeren, diploma, University of Hannover (1997).  N. Büthe, U. Giese, R. H. Schuster and G. Wünsch; "Firegases of Rubber Materials - A Systematic Investigation", poster presentation at the International Rubber Conference '98, Paris, CNIT La Défense, 12. - 14. May (1998).  N. Büthe, U. Giese, R. H. Schuster and G. Wünsch; "Firegases of Rubber Materials - A Systematic Investigation", poster presentation at the 3rd Kautschuk-Herbst-Kolloquium, Hannover, Maritim Stadthotel, 15. - 17. October (1998).  N. Büthe, U. Giese, R. H. Schuster and G. Wünsch; "Combustion Effluents of Rubber, I. - Chemical Analysis of Compositions and Influence of Combustion Parameters, Kautsch. Gummi Kunstst., 53, 1-2 (2000) 42-51.  Nicholas Büthe, "Elastomerbrände - Modellbrandversuche, Analytik und Bewertung", doctoral thesis, University of Hannover, 1999.  Nicholas Büthe, U. Giese and R. H. Schuster; "Rubber fires - composition of effluents and influence of parameters", lecture given at the 4th Fall Rubber Colloquium, 2000/11/07 in Hannover.
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6 Curriculum vitae
Name: Nicholas Büthe Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Birthday: 29.09.1969
10/90 - 12/96
Chemistry at the Universität Hannover,
main course: Analytical Chemistry
Main practical exercise:
Platinium analysis at the Fraunhofer Institut für Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung, Hannover Diploma:
06/96 - 12/96
"Untersuchung von Brandgasen an Elastomeren" at the Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Fachbereich Analytische Chemie, Universität Hannover Doctoral thesis:
01/97 - 11/99
"Elastomerbrände - Modellbrandversuche, Analytik und Bewertung" at the Deutsches Institut für Kautschuktechnologie e.V., Hannover, under the care of Prof. Dr. Gerold Wünsch Vocational activities: 02/97 - 03/00 employed as a research scientist at the DIK, department rubber chemistry, member of the IT working group
04/00 - 12/03 employed at the Rhein Chemie Rheinau GmbH, Technical Applications Development, Rubber Industry
since 01/04 employed at the Münzing Chemie GmbH, Technical Marketing, Business Unit Paint Chemistry
or a questions about the Deutsches Institut für Kautschuktechnologie e.V. (DIK)
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author: Nicholas Büthe, page-location: http://www.buethe.onlinehome.de/research.htm